Projects of houses and cottages: building technologies and review of current trends of the year

A two-story house with a white brick facade and wooden siding from Randy Bens Architect. Location: Vancouver, Canada; end of construction - 2016.

Two-story house with a white brick facade and wooden siding from Randy Bens Architect. Location: Vancouver, Canada; completion of construction – 2016 g.

If you have long been interested in the design of houses and cottages, viewing photos and drawings, this article will be useful to you. All more people dream of exchanging a stuffy apartment in a metropolis for country house of your dreams. Today, suburban villages have quite developed infrastructure. This allows you to equip the house for a feature of the city, without denying yourself the conveniences of the modern world.

Content:

  • Determining the basic requirements for a house project
  • The choice of the number of floors
  • Choosing a cottage or country house project
  • Varieties of technologies for building country houses and cottages

Possibilities of monolithic construction on terrain with complex terrain

Possibilities of monolithic construction on terrain with difficult relief

Типовой проект "Matas". Общая площадь: 125 кв. m;  гараж 21 кв. m;  площадь застройки - 175 кв. m . Визуализации интерьера - сm . ниже

Типовой проект “Matas”. Общая площадь: 125 кв. m; гараж 21 кв.m; built-up area – 175 square meters. m. Visualization of the interior – see ниже

If you finally become the owner of a house in nature, then you no longer have to inhale the dirty air of the metropolis. And outside the window now you can hear the sounds of birds, not the noise of the city transport. It all sounds like an unlikely dream. However, this is not so, but it’s worth starting with the consideration of the most common options for houses and cottages, their features construction and operation.

Determining the basic requirements for a house project

Most often, people have a very vague idea of ​​the future. the house of your dreams. Before choosing a project, you need everything think carefully. First, just try to imagine it. as detailed as possible. What do you want from this housing? A place for a weekend break, a summer house or a reliable place of residence? how many rooms should be in it and for how many living? It all can simplify the selection of the basic building concept and bring you closer to final selection of the desired project. Properly set goals and house requirements can save you from wasting time and finance for unnecessary things. The first thing to choose is which future building will perform functions: for permanent residence or periodic rest. It depends on the number of residents in it layout and total area.

Гостиная доm а по типовому проекту "Matas"

Гостиная дома по типовому проекту “Matas”

Кухня средних размеров в типовом кирпичном доме "Matas"

Кухня средних размеров в типовом кирпичном доме “Matas”

Общий план дома по типовому проекту "Matas": тамбур+прихожая - 13,3 кв. м; гостиная - 16 кв. м; кухня- 13,3 кв. м; гостиная- 32,4 кв. м; гараж - 21,2 кв. м; котельная - 6,3 кв. м; санузел 8,1 кв. м; спальня - 14,6 кв. м

The general plan of the house according to the standard project “Matas”: vestibule + entrance hall – 13,3 кв. м; living room – 16 square meters. м; кухня- 13,3 кв. м; гостиная- 32,4кв. м; garage – 21.2 square meters м; boiler room – 6.3 square meters м; санузел 8,1 кв.м; bedroom – 14.6 square meters м

If you need small housing to stay small family or periodic vacation outside the city, then a great choice there will be a cottage. Most often this is a small building with one or one and a half floors. The second floor is made in the form of an attic, and the role of the wall is with one or both sides are tilted. Their role is played by the roof of the building. Cottages can serve as a small permanent residence family, and for periodic holidays or seasonal living. The simplest cottages can include only two living rooms. They are necessarily built outside the city and are usually part natural landscape. A mandatory attribute of any cottage is plot of land. It can be small in five hundred parts, or occupy a decent area. For greater unity with nature on such areas can plant gardens or dig a pond.

A situational plan from a project of a one-story house with an area of ​​107 sq. M

A situational plan from a project of a one-story house with an area of ​​107 square meters. м

Plan for the improvement of the site from the architectural and construction part of the project

Plan for the improvement of the site from the architectural and construction part the project

All general information about the future building is in the structural section of the architectural and construction part of the first part of the project; general information about the future building is in the structural section of the architectural and construction part of the first part of the project

All general information about the future building is in a constructive section of architectural and construction, the first part of the project

Sketch drawing: section of a building (pictured above) in one of the projections

Sketch drawing: section of a building (pictured above) in one of projections

The choice of the number of floors

The number of floors of a future country house or cottage depends from the area allocated for construction and the required amount living space. After all, if you have a small construction site, but need a house with a large number of rooms and a large volume, then this The problem can be solved with the device of the second floor. Consider advantages and disadvantages of such a solution.

The main advantage of such a house is significant savings. plot of land for development. This is very important if the house is planned. build in a place with a high building density or the cost The land is very high to build a one-story house. Second the advantage of a two-story house is a smaller floor area buildings on the same living space, relatively one-story at home. Also, a two-story building has a smaller perimeter of the construction platforms. This greatly reduces the length of its foundation. All this weighty arguments to choose a two-story building project. But u This solution has its drawbacks:

  1. The main disadvantage of a two-story house is its complexity designs. For example, despite the smaller perimeter of the foundation, the base of the building is subject to higher requirements. He must withstand the weight of the entire two-story house with overlapping. Therefore more often total foundation has a more complex construction with respect to foundation of a one-story building. The layout of the foundation elements of a one-story house with an area of ​​107 square meters from the design section of the project

    Layout of the foundation elements of a one-story house an area of ​​107 square meters. m from the design section of the project

  2. A two-story house is much longer to build with the same residential area due to its complex construction.
  3. The third drawback follows from the previous two: cost the structure of a two-story house is much larger than single story.
  4. In a two-story house, access to the second floor. The presence of stairs takes a huge amount of residential volume and complicates the design of the house. Moreover, the presence of stairs increases the possibility of injury. This is a very important indicator if the family has or is planning small children.

Visualization of a two-story house with the interior design of all residential premises in the Provence style. The area of ​​all the premises of the first floor is 110.5 sq. M.

Visualization of a two-story house with interior decoration of all Provence style living quarters. The area of ​​all rooms of the first floors – 110.5 square meters. м

Attic second bathroom

Attic second bathroom

Practical and beautiful Provencal cuisine of the future medium-sized house. The kitchen area is 13.7 sq. M, the dining room is 10.6 sq. M.

Practical and beautiful Provencal cuisine of the future home of medium sizes. The kitchen area is 13.7 square meters. m, dining room – 10.6 square meters. м

Explication of premises and a plan for arranging furniture for a frame cottage in the photo above (total built-up area - 250 sq. M)

Explication of premises and layout plan for furniture frame the cottage in the photo above (total built-up area – 250 sq. m)

The ceiling height in this cottage according to the project is 3 m

The ceiling height in this cottage according to the project is 3 m

Attic bedroom on the second floor. The total area of ​​all attic rooms is 80.4 sq. M.

Attic bedroom on the second floor. Total area of ​​all attic rooms – 80.4 square meters. м

Projects of houses and cottages: a choice

Once you have decided on the basic requirements for the future your dream home, choose the number of floors, then it’s time to choose directly projects of houses and cottages. To this stage you need approach with all responsibility. After all, the project is completely displays both the general layout of the building and the smallest hole under the nail in the ceiling. First you need to look at typical projects of country houses. You can also see photos of ready-made similar buildings, their drawings.

Advice! For starters, it is advisable to look at simple projects. houses and cottages. And then if you want to move on to more complex designs. This will help to better understand the features. designs of the main types of buildings.

A monolithic two-story country house with a decorative stone facade decoration

Monolithic two-story country house with facade decoration decorative stone

Projects of houses and cottages, drawings and photos. The entire structure of the building in the project is described in detail in terms of its adaptability to local conditions and regulatory loads, depending on the climatic zone

The entire structure of the building in the project in detail described in terms of its adaptability to local conditions and regulatory loads, depending on the climate zone

The interior of the monolithic house with a total area of ​​760 sq. M. The warm climate zone allows the summer to further expand the ground floor area due to sliding glass partitions

The interior of the monolithic house with a total area of ​​760 square meters. m. Teplaya climatic zone allows in summer to expand the area even more ground floor with sliding glass partitions

The facade of the house, adapted to more variable climatic conditions, the village of Lochau, Austria. Area: 200 square meters; architect: Bernardo Bader; completion: 2016

Facade of a house adapted to more variable climatic conditions conditions, the village of Lochau, Austria. Area: 200 square meters м; architect: Bernardo Bader; completion of construction: 2016

Modern projects are often still represented in the amount of in electronic format. All this will help you imagine as much as possible. what will be the house, even before its construction. In the finished project must be:

  • drawings of the building are presented with a full review of it layout and design features;
  • the location of utilities (water supply, ventilation, sewage, power lines and more)

Also, the axonometric diagram of the internal water supply system with the designations of all its nodes is included in the house project

Also in the project of the house is an axonometric diagram of the internal water supply with the designations of all its nodes

Another section of the project is dedicated to the description of the heating system

Another section of the project is devoted to the description of the heating the system

  • full calculations of possible maximum wind loads on building facades, its overlap depending on climatic terrain and house shape features);
  • calculation of static and dynamic structural loads foundation, internal and external walls, building overlap.

Today, the client can choose: take a standard cottage project or at home, or individual. The advantages and disadvantages of each you will find out now.

Standard projects

The main advantage of such a project is the price. More Moreover, companies that provide ready-made house designs have whole project catalogs with drawings and all required documentation. For example, you need to look at projects of one-story houses with an area of up to 150 sq m. To do this, it will be enough just to choose you parameters, and you can inspect dozens of finished structures houses. There are also some resources that can provide free projects. Let them not be very original but this option can save you a decent amount of money. After all, it will not be necessary to resort to the services of designers and engineers.

The above samples of the contents of the engineering part of the project are taken as an example from the project of such a budget-sized house of medium size (107 sq. M.) Wall material - aerated concrete

The above examples of the contents of the engineering part of the project taken as an example from the project of such a budget house of medium sizes (107 sq. m). Wall material – aerated concrete

The lack of standard designs can be judged even from the name. When building a house on such a project, most likely you won’t get the building, which fully meets your requirements and desires. More In addition, there are a lot of houses created according to standard designs. And it is possible there may be several buildings of the same type on your street. For people craving for personality, this option is unacceptable. Projects of beautiful houses with an original design require a little a different approach.

The budget choice of building materials continues: a simple gable roof on wooden rafters and FBS foundation blocks

The budget choice of building materials continues: simple gable roofing on wooden rafters and foundation blocks FBS

Project on order (individual)

Individual projects are also called special. They are are carried out according to the requirements and wishes of the customer. Engineers and Designers in a special project take into account all your needs. Also you You can directly participate in the design of the house your dream. If you have dreamed all your life to get a certain house forms, then engineers will help translate any design decision into compliance with state standards and fire safety requirements. If you decide to order an individual project, you can order indicate:

  • building planning requirements, number of rooms, their accommodation. For example, if you want to have a house with a garage and like that;
  • materials to be used as basic building or finishing;
  • preferences in home decoration, roof construction and other things.

Thanks to all this, you get an original home design, which will only be with you. He perfectly distinguishes your home from a number houses of the same type. So if you decide to make an individual project, you can unleash your imagination and get a dream home.

The plan of the first floor (76.8 sq. M) of aerated concrete houses

Ground floor plan (76.8 sq. M) of aerated concrete houses

Plan of the second floor (47.4 sq. M) of aerated concrete houses

Plan of the second floor (47.4 sq. M) of aerated concrete houses

The main disadvantage of a special project is its cost. Than The more original and more complex the design, the more expensive it will cost. By moreover, the very implementation of such a project will cost a lot. The second drawback of special projects is the time spent on construction site. After all, the bulk of special orders are more complex in performance than typical. Unlike options already tested projects for individual construction will not work like that to use past achievements and technologies.

After drafting and agreeing all reservations with by the client, it must be assured by the competent authorities. If the project of the house meets safety standards, it is claimed. Only then you can make an estimate regarding the costs of construction, procure materials and proceed directly to construction work.

An individual house project with conveniently equipped communications is best ordered after the final selection of a suitable layout, as on this 3D model of a one-story house

Individual house project with conveniently equipped communications best ordered after final selection layouts, as on this 3D model of a one-story house

Varieties of technologies for building country houses and cottages

Industry does not stand still. Progress is not spared and technologies in the construction industry. There are many ways. build yourself a country house. There are also relatively new technologies, as well as outdated, but reliable methods.

Brick houses

Brick houses are still very popular, despite the simplicity of such a technology for building buildings. Brick has high strength and durability. But the most important advantage – refractory properties of this type of building material. Brick house It will stand for decades, and even centuries. Still stone excellent combined with any kind of cladding. The disadvantages of brick houses:

  • relatively high cost;
  • brick houses are suitable only for permanent residence. it due to the high heat capacity of this material.

Foam concrete houses

This type of material is quite popular today. Buildings from foam concrete is quickly built due to the large size of the foam block and its smooth surface. Porous material is easy to processing that allows you to achieve any shape of the walls. Also this makes it easy to route communications through a wall of foam block. Foam concrete has high refractory, heat and soundproofing properties. The disadvantage of this material is its fragility (in comparison with a brick).

Пенобетон - практичный, легкий и бюджетный материал. А на все проблемы, связанные с ним, уже есть готовые ответы. К примеру, много вопросов с хрупкостью снимают т.н. "химические анкеры", и так далее

Foam concrete is a practical, lightweight and low-cost material. And the problems associated with it, already have ready-made solutions. К примеру, многоso-called “chemical anchors” remove issues with fragility, and etc.

Wooden houses and cottages

Wood is an environmentally friendly material, which is favorable affects the health of residents. As building elements used wooden beams or centered logs. Tree possesses high heat and sound insulating properties. House of wood is relatively inexpensive and is built quite quickly. The disadvantage of such a building material is insufficient fire safety. The tree structure itself also contributes restrictions on the layout of the building.

Projects of houses and cottages: a modern monolithic house

Modern monolithic house

Monolithic houses

This method of walling is quite complicated with technological points of view. For construction work you need to use complex technique and mechanisms. But recently, construction technology monolithic houses has undergone changes. Non-removable for sale formwork. This greatly simplifies the casting of the monolith and increases insulating properties of walls.

Another view of the house (see. Fig. Above)

Another view of the house (see. Fig. Above)

Monolithic construction using modern technologies is a limitless field for experimentation. In the real estate market, such houses are today rated higher than the rest.

Monolithic construction using modern technologies – limitless field for experimentation. In the real estate market, such Today’s houses are rated above the rest

Почти вся элитная недвижимость, строящаяся в наше время - это "монолит". Но у этой технологии есть и минусы. Больше всего она оправдывает себя всё-таки в теплых климатических условиях

Almost all the elite real estate being built in our time is “монолит”. Но у этой технологии есть и минусы. Больше всего онаоправдывает себя всё-таки в теплых климатических условиях

Frame houses

Houses built using this technology are very popular today. The relatively low cost of the building is very captivating. At this entire construction can take only a few months. Relative to other technologies, frame houses have a small strength and durability. They are best suited as cottages or houses for temporary seasonal residence.

Now you know more about the features of country houses and cottages. After all, you have become one step closer to your dream home. Beautiful designs of houses and cottages see below:

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