Table of contents:
- 1 Ground floor – usable area
- 2 Types of socles
- 3 Calculations
- 4 Types of foundation
- 5 Width of basement
- 6 Waterproofing
- 7 Step by step instructions
- 7.1 Base tab
- 7.2 Filling
- 7.3 Waterproofing and insulation
- 7.4 Wall cladding
- 7.5 Sex
- 7.6 Overlap
- 8 Concrete block basement construction
- 9 Of the foam blocks
- 10 Hillside construction
- 11 videos
Ground floor is fully or partially the floor of the building is below ground level. As a rule, in such the premises are equipped with utility rooms or a garage for a car. However, individual house designs include basement bath, sauna, gym, pool, etc. In some ground floor construction cases is wonderful solution, especially if the house is located on a slope. Thereby You can effectively increase the living area of the entire building. Therefore if If you have not started building a house, it will be useful for you read the provided article from which you will learn to how to make a basement and arrange, and for what purposes it can be used.
Ground floor – usable area
- 1 Ground floor – usable area
- 2 Types of socles
- 3 Calculations
- 4 Types of foundation
- 5 Basement Width
- 6 Waterproofing
- 7 Step-by-step instruction
- 8 Concrete block basement
- 9 From foam blocks
- 10 Hillside construction
- 11 Video
The basement can simultaneously serve as the foundation of everything buildings and living quarters. The main feature when it arrangement is the fulfillment of requirements for size, strength and interior space. So, the regulated ceiling height should be at least 2.5 m. However, in some cases, the deepening limited by the presence of high groundwater. Therefore basement floor may be above ground level. In cases where underground the waters are deep, this room is completely hidden in the ground.
Do not assume that the basement is a basement. In fact in fact, it can be fully considered a full floor, but only if its proper arrangement.
Lounge on ground floor
For example, if groundwater is located at least 1 m from surface of the earth, then under construction to dig a pit is not worth it. In this case, the aerial part of the base should be covered with soil. In such case, you can artificially deepen the ground floor. However such the decision will entail great labor costs. Also optional It is necessary to organize high-quality drainage around the building.
So, the basement can be used to arrange such premises:
- wine Vault;
- living room;
- utility room;
- living room;
- home theater and stuff.
As you can see, there are practically no restrictions on how to use this usable area. Another positive side of this premises in that the insulating qualities of the whole increase at home.
Types of socles
The basement differs in its design and there are 3 types:
- flush with the walls.
If the walls are too thin and the basement is below ground level, then the first option is used, as the opportunity arises make it warmer. The sunken base is one of the most common. In appearance, it looks pretty pretty. The drainage of water that drains from the facade prevents the presence of high humidity. As for the in-depth version, many construction experts do not recommend building it. IN in this case, the effect of the presence of the basement is completely lost floors, and on the walls you will need to make powerful waterproofing.
Base flush with the walls
There are some features for choosing wall thickness. The main this will depend on several factors, namely:
- thickness and material of upstream walls;
- soil characteristics;
- climatic conditions in your area.
So, having decided how it will be implemented construction and what type of cap you want, you can proceed to preparatory and construction processes.
The markup phase involves the following actions:
- Ground floor design, as well as determining the purpose one or another room.
- Calculations of the bearing capacity of the foundation and walls of the underground floors. It is recommended to lay 30% more strength here foundation. So, it will be possible to have greater confidence in the strength the whole structure.
- Clearing and marking the construction site. This phase of work quite responsible, so it’s often better to turn to qualified specialists.
- Removal of the contour of partitions and load-bearing walls.
How carefully approach each preparatory stage, will directly affect the strength of the structure.
Types of foundation
Not in all cases is it possible to make a foundation that really want to. The reason lies in the particular soil or another region. In some climatic zones, arrangement some types of foundations are generally impossible. Therefore consider several foundation options that you can build for basement floor.
- Pile foundation. This type of construction is relevant on the heaving ground with a high occurrence of groundwater. As for the basement floors, then in this case the operation of the ground floor is not represents no problems and fears of any impacts to the foundation. The only drawback of this method is the specifics building houses.
- Slab foundation. This type of foundation is suitable for marshy soil with soft soil, as well as with saturated sand. With this the execution of the ground floor will look like a box, on top of which there will be the main part of the house is being built. In conditions of soft soil, slab the foundation will prevent subsidence, as the weight of the building will be evenly distributed over the entire surface of the plate.
- Strip foundation. If the soil on your site is not problematic, then this type of foundation is optimal.
The width of the foundation of the ground floor depends entirely on the nature walls of the main structure. Take the example of a frame house as a basis. In this case, the width of the foundation may be:
- With a pile foundation – 300-500 mm. Accordingly, the thickness walls can be equal to the foundation. Under the facade, ventilation gap and exterior finish erect the base not necessary.
- With a monolithic slab, the width of the foundation should correspond the width of the walls of the basement of the building.
- With a shallow strip foundation, the width is equal to the walls ground floor. But this is when the basement doesn’t concrete screed will be equipped.
Be sure to consider the location of the holes for the arrangement ventilation ducts. They must be indicated on the general project. foundation. According to the standards and regulated norms of SNiP their should be 12 to 24.
Waterproofing for the ground floor should be carried out in 2 layers. On the The choice of waterproofing material is influenced by several factors:
- wall material;
- climatic conditions;
- soil type, etc.
Waterproofing should cover the entire vertical and horizontal surface of the structure. It is also necessary to cover everything places of contact with the ground.
You can use roofing felt or roofing material. Such waterproofing It will cost you relatively inexpensively. As an option – bitumen mastic. There are no special rules for applying waterproofing. the main thing thoroughly protect and cover all sections of the foundation from moisture penetration.
Below you will find detailed instructions for all actions for do-it-yourself ground floor construction. Worth highlighting processes to be performed:
- Foundation tab.
- Waterproofing and insulation.
- Wall covering.
- To begin with, the site is marked according to the project building.
- Digging a pit along the perimeter of the building. Depth also determined by the project, but it should not be deeper than the underground part of the foundation is 500-600 mm.
- From crushed stone and gravel, a fraction of 50 mm is added, as well as layer of sand. Each of these layers must be at least 100 mm.
- Each layer is rammed. Sand, in turn, is watered water. This will provide a better seal.
- After tamping, the base of concrete M100 is poured with a thickness of 5 cm. This layer is necessary for leveling the base for laying. slabs of the ground floor floor. It is also required for additional waterproofing.
- When the concrete is completely dry, roll is laid waterproofing material in 2 layers. It connects with bitumen with mastic.
- After making the foundation, you can proceed to the construction external formwork.
- But first, the floor plate is poured. She will also serve foundation for foundation walls.
- You can build formwork from fixed panels or boards. Formwork necessarily reinforced.
- For reinforcement, buy corrugated reinforcement Ø10 cm. Between yourself she is bound by wire.
- In places where walls will be erected, it is additionally mounted fittings in vertical position.
- For pouring it is recommended to use concrete М250 or M300.
- The plate is poured 200 mm thick, and more can be.
- The poured solution must be punched with vibration rails and deep vibrator to let air out.
- The surface should be flat. Poured concrete needed leave for 4 weeks.
- To speed up the construction process, you can start in parallel build wall formwork.
- Some experts recommend the use of fixed polypropylene shields that will simultaneously serve in quality of insulation.
- Reinforcement in the longitudinal direction is also carried out. walls.
- Reinforcing rods are bandaged with previously installed vertical rods.
- According to the project, leave openings for the doors. And for laying communications, lay sleeves made of metal pipes.
- You can fill the walls in layers or completely. If you decide fill with layers, then each subsequent one needs to be filled, not waiting for the previous to dry completely.
In general, the entire structure gains its strength after 28 days.
Waterproofing and insulation
Now it’s time to waterproof the basement. You can use plastering or pasting material. Inside is better Only apply penetration insulation. She will not break steam exchange, and also increase the strength of the structure.
As for the external thermal insulation, then for this you can apply expanded polystyrene plates. Their fasteners can be performed on glue. The part of the wall that is located above the ground, You can also use a quick-fix plug. IN completion remains to fill the soil around the perimeter of the building.
If the soil has large and hard elements, then backfilling is better implement sand. Otherwise, it can be easily damaged. thermal insulation and waterproofing layer.
Sheathing external walls is best done with natural stone. Such The finish is very durable, because this material is notable for its strength. As a result, the wall will be protected from decomposition and sudden changes. temperature. Therefore, you can use marble, limestone or granite.
One of the most modern finishing materials is basement siding. Such plastic is able to cope with the harsh climate, but does not fade in the sun. Its installation is carried out on specially made frame / crate.
As for the interior decoration of the walls, previously it is necessary to decide for what purpose this or that will be used the room. Therefore, you will first need to conduct heating and other communications, for example, sewerage, water supply and light. From the inside, the walls are also plastered, insulated with polystyrene foam, foam or foam insulation.
For wall cladding, it is better to choose moisture resistant materials.
First, the floor is insulated:
- The first step is to make a sand pillow.
- Next, roofing material is covered.
- When laying roofing material, avoid gaps.
- Top mounted iron reinforcement bars.
- Then the floor is poured with concrete M400 or M300.
Depending on the purpose of the room, floor insulation can run differently. For example, in the living room or gym it is possible to lay the “Warm floor” system on the floor, it can be electric or water. As for domestic premises, then it is enough to lay arbolitovy plates or to fill up floors with expanded clay thickness up to 100 mm.
A concrete screed is poured on top of the insulation.
One of the last stages of construction is manufacturing overlap. There are several technologies here:
- Monolithic concrete goods plate.
- Precast monolithic plate.
- Wood flooring.
From concrete slabs
Consider the step-by-step installation of a monolithic reinforced concrete plate:
- First you need to build a formwork with mandatory reinforcement.
- The whole structure is fixed with racks in increments of 1 m.
- The plate should go on the walls, 150-200 mm.
- Now make a reinforcing belt.
- On the walls he should go 40-60 mm.
- At intervals of 150 mm, fittings are installed.
- The next step will be casting a monolithic slab with a thickness of up to 200 mm
After pouring, you need to wait about one month to the floor is dry.
If we talk about a precast-monolithic slab, then in this case installation of the floor is carried out using special equipment. Important take into account that such overlappings have their own standards, therefore, they may not suitable for every project. So, for its installation it is necessary carry out the following work:
- Masonry is built around the perimeter of the basement to a height overlap.
- After putting waterproofing and poured a small layer solution.
- At the next stage, steel frames are assembled, in which there will be Installation of prefabricated monolithic slab.
- When installing between the plates will remain space. His must be filled with concrete. The result is a solid design.
Also consider the technology for the manufacture of wooden floors, it is mainly used for wooden houses:
- Wooden beams are mounted.
- The edges of the beams are wrapped with roofing material, and after they can be put on the basement.
- The walls are pre-made openings for beams.
- Insulation should be placed in these openings.
- After installing the beams on the bottom side, fasteners are made small bars.
- Roll-up boards are screwed to them.
- On the roll lay out ruberoid and insulation with a thickness of up to 150 mm
Following simple recommendations, you can do it step by step all work independently. Although in some cases without help qualified specialists and special equipment in no way get along.
Concrete block basement
Concrete base blocks
If you are looking for an economical option for arranging a basement floors then concrete blocks are better suited to perform like nothing tasks. This material is strong enough, repels moisture well, tolerates temperature extremes, resistant to mold and mildew. If talk about flaws, then – this is a mandatory use special equipment for their installation. Manually deal with them impossible.
Blocks are installed around the perimeter of the future building. They are cemented together. Be sure to leave recesses between blocks for communications: water supply, electricity, sewage, ventilation. As for ventilation, the holes must be at least 150 mm above the ground. So that in the left holes did not hit the trash; it is better to cover them.
If the basement rises above ground level, then take care of the place for windows. In this case, the larger the windows, all the better. This will provide zero room with natural light.
So that after installing the blocks you do not have to allocate a lot of funds and material for plastering walls, it is important to maximize their evenness set. Although the blocks are durable materials, on top of everything equally need to make an armored belt. It is necessary in order to align the entire tier horizontally, since it’s still set it’s perfect in level.
From foam blocks
The principle of all preparatory work for the installation of foam blocks, similar to working with concrete blocks. The foundation is poured small a thin layer of mortar for laying the first row. To make the material better seized, it is recommended to moisten the cement with water. To start corner laying is performed. After the walls are aligned in height and horizontally. Between the corners the line is pulled and pulled main walls of the basement.
After the first row, it is necessary to apply waterproofing in liquid condition. Waterproofing is applied in several layers. Each the subsequent layer is applied after the previous one dries. Thereafter masonry of foam blocks continues with special glue.
Do not forget, each row and especially the angle should be checked for subject of evenness. After masonry, around the perimeter a trench breaks up to a depth of 50 mm. Fittings fit into it, which is welded together in the corners. At the end of the trench poured with concrete. This will happen by reinforcing the entire structure. basement floor.
Oddly enough it sounds, but the slope only simplifies manufacturing basement floor. An ideal slope is considered up to 9 °. So no the need to dig a large pit. Enough of the array cut from the slope. In such cases, the garage looks original in basement room.
If we talk about technology, the first thing is done pillow and waterproofing. The further stage of construction is described higher.
So, from this article it was possible to learn how to correctly conduct basement construction works. If you have a personal experience in construction, then leave comments at the end of this articles. If you still have questions, then for help you can contact an expert.
On how to make your own basement you can learn from video: