Table of contents:
- 1 Substance
- 2 Types of systems
- 3 Boiler selection
- 4 Pipe selection
- 5 Additional nodes
- 6 Preparatory work
- 7 Procedure
- 8 videos
More and more people are convinced that an autonomous heating method An apartment or house is more economical than centralized. Do-it-yourself steam heating is one of the challenges, but it’s quite doable if you have basic skills with power tool. Even before installation, it is necessary to carry out calculations and procurement of necessary components.
Essence of the question
Some are confused and believe that the correct the name of such a system is water heating, and the prefix “steam” left from the past, when heating was provided by industrial boiler houses that produced large volumes of steam. On the in fact, today there are boilers that provide space heating by converting liquid into two state of aggregation. Strengths of this decision are:
- double heat transfer – by convection as well as infrared radiation;
- minimal losses in the heat exchanger during energy transfer from source;
- high reliability;
- there is no danger of defrosting the system in cold weather of the year;
- possibility of use at any time of the year;
- Long life without fail.
Some disadvantages are:
- relatively high temperature of pipes and radiators;
- serious consequences of a breakthrough;
- some difficulties during installation;
- high susceptibility to corrosion.
The essence of functioning and high efficiency is that steam, passing along the highway, it condenses and settles, while A large amount of thermal energy is released. With the same fuel costs, such a system will be much more efficient similar in terms of water span.
Usually in order to ensure the safety of users, in modern boilers are subject to certain restrictions. For instance, the maximum temperature to which the steam is heated is 130º C, and the highest point that the pressure reaches is 6 atmospheres
Varieties of systems
All types of systems are divided into single-circuit and double-circuit. IN the first option, the entire boiler power is used for heating a carrier that will take part in raising the temperature indoor air. In the second option is present additional heat exchanger in which heating is performed running water, which allows its use for domestic needs. At the implementation of the second option is worth remembering that you will need supply additional communications to the boiler room and their return back to the living room.
Different systems heating
According to the method of circulation of the carrier, as in the case of water systems distinguish:
- Natural circulation or closed. In this case, after condensation of water under the influence of gravity by natural current without the pump returns to the boiler, where again it is converted to steam and is used.
- Forced circulation or open. In this case, water does not immediately fall back into the heater. At first she is going to special tank from which a pump is supplied for further transfer to a gaseous state.
By the level of pressure inside emit:
- Atmospheric. In them, the pressure value is several times higher atmospheric, which during an accident can cause serious injuries. In addition, in such a system, the emitters are heated to high temperature, and the settling dust burns and unpleasant smell.
- Vacuum To implement this option, the entire trunk should be airtight. Using a special pump inside is created vacuum. The result of this is the conversion of water to gaseous condition at lower temperatures, which increases security.
According to the pipe wiring method, they distinguish:
- Single tube. Steam moves continuously along a single pipe. On first half way he gives his energy to radiators, gradually turning into a liquid state. The temperature of the emitters, which are closer to the boiler will be higher than those that are are at the end of the circuit. In this case, you will need large pipes diameter so that there are no obstacles.
Single pipe system heating
- Two-pipe. Steam is supplied through one pipe, and condensate returns on another. In this case, the media reaches all devices, practically without losing temperature. This option will be relevant for large houses that have several floors. If the premises small, it makes no sense, it will only increase the total cost project.
Double pipe system heating
Vacuum systems are still under testing. At their use will need a constant electrical energy, because the vacuum pump is functioning practically continuously.
The choice of boilers
In order to choose the right heater, first the matter is to calculate the area that will be heated. To do this, you need to calculate the area of each individual room, multiplying the width by the length. After that all the results are necessary add up, the final number will be the desired value. Important to remember, that this is true for ceilings up to 3 m, if it is greater, then it is necessary to make an additional margin of power.
- For a total area of up to 200-300 m2 is enough performance of 25-30 kW.
- For 400-600 m2 – 35-60 kW;
- 600‒1200 m2 – 60‒100 kW.
The next step will be the choice of fuel. Steam boilers with ease operate from such sources:
- Liquid. It can be, for example, diesel fuel or waste oil. Using this option is mandatory the unit will be placed in a separate room. This will help Avoid inhalation of harmful fumes and their negative effects on health.
- Solid – firewood, coal, peat and everything that can burn with the release of large amounts of heat.
- Gaseous. Usually it is natural or liquefied gas.
Solid fuel solutions cost in some cases much cheaper, but not only the costs of fuel, but also the time that will be spent on kindling. IN in this case, it can reach several hours, while it is necessary to constantly replenish the furnace in order to maintain temperature at the proper level.
Some manufacturers combine different types of fuel. For example, they combine a furnace for loading solid fuel and provide the availability of heating elements. In this case, the efficiency does not fall, but it turns out to save on expense, and therefore on payment.
Types of pipes
When choosing a lot will depend on the planned budget. what we can say for sure – for systems of this type in no case polypropylene pipes are not used. This is explained by their instability to high temperature conditions. You need to choose will be from the following options:
- Steel pipes. For their installation, a welding machine is required. They are resistant to high pressure and temperature. The positive side is also affordable price and prevalence. Disadvantage – High Exposure corrosion.
Longitudinal pipe from steel
- Galvanized pipes. Include all the benefits of steel, plus, the lack of corrosion resistance is compensated here. The joint is made using threaded connections, therefore no welding required.
- Copper. Are an ideal option. But they are much more expensive at a cost, in addition, their installation will require special skills by soldering this material.
When mounting pipes can be hidden in the wall or floor. But with it is important to consider that the building material is resistant to thermal effects.
Cast iron batteries
In addition to the boiler and pipes for the highway, mandatory elements that can not be dispensed with:
- Radiators It can be cast iron batteries, steel products or pipes with ribs. It is better to install them under the windows. So a heat plug forms that cuts off the cold air. This will prevent condensation glasses.
- Fitting. Various connecting elements: couplings, corners, bends, adapters that are required during installation the pipeline.
- Reduction and cooling unit. Carries out the transfer of steam in a liquid state.
- Gearbox. Designed to adjust the pressure in the system.
- Expansion tank. It is better to use an open type element. If there is a desire to put a sealed tank, then it is necessary equip with pressure gauge and pressure relief valve. If not done, this can lead to its failure.
- Tank for condensate collection.
- Circulation pump. For systems with forced movement liquids.
- Hydraulic shutter. Will be needed when needed drain the system to repair it or replace any components.
- Filter. Will be needed to remove solid inclusions before water entering the boiler. This is necessary so that nothing reduces performance.
- Mayevsky cranes.
Installation of an indirect boiler is possible in the steam heating system heating up. In this case, you need a valve with three inputs. He is connecting to the thermostat and redirects the movement of the coolant.
System diagram heating in the house
The first step is to draw up a drawing. On a piece of paper a plan of the building in which installation will be carried out is applied. The location of the boiler is determined. It is desirable to highlight for him separate room. This is done in order to ensure maximum safety. If it is a closed system with natural circulation, then it should be at the lowest point. it it is necessary that water can flow freely to it.
The layout of the entire system is applied, as well as the location of all elements that were listed in the previous subsection. At this step is better to be in a particular room, then it will be possible to plan everything in the best way, Considering the need to bend the pipeline around obstacles or protrusions. On the diagram it is necessary to note all the corners and transitions. After Once the drawing is completed, you can most accurately calculate the material, which will be necessary for the successful completion of the entire project.
Some craftsmen make a steam boiler on their own. is he either cooked from sheet material or made from pipes A special contour that is laid inside a brick stove. In the second case, it will be necessary to monitor the condition the heat exchanger that is best made from stainless steel, which will extend its service life. Also very important with more periodically clean smoke outlets.
Solid fuel boiler
According to the markup on the diagram:
- The boiler is mounted. In the room where he will be, there must be a concrete base. If necessary a small foundation is made.
- It is connected to the exhaust system gases.
- Emitters are suspended. For this, hooks are used that designed to support their weight. About where they should be located, as stated above.
- Each radiator must be equipped with a Maevsky tap for dumping air congestion.
- A short distance from the boiler, at the highest point, crashes the expansion tank.
- At the exit of the boiler, a pressure gauge and a relief valve are installed, which will work when the pressure exceeds acceptable borders.
- All components are interconnected using pipes from selected material.
- If it is an open system, then it is mounted at the end of the trunk special tank and pump.
- From the pump to the boiler there is a supply pipe of a smaller diameter than all heating.
- Before entering the boiler there is a filter that delays large particles.
- If gas will be used as carrier, then a rigid approach is carried out without any flexible hoses.
- Liquid is being charged into the circuit.
- A test run of the system is carried out with a gradual temperature increase to verify integrity.
In this article, we examined in detail how to make steam heating of a private house. We would love to know about ready-made and functioning projects. Share your experiences and observations in comments.
When installing heating in a wooden house, you need to consider the specifics of such a structure.
Watch a video on how to make heating properly: