Table of contents:
- 1 Types
- 2 Surface
- 3 Point
- 4 Linear
- 5 Deep
- 6 On clay soils
- 6.1 Use of terrain
- 7 On peat soils
- 8 Errors in the arrangement
- 9 videos
- 10 Schemes
Drainage of the summer cottage is better to entrust to specialists, however, if there is no such possibility, then you can try to figure out everything by yourself. First of all, you need to make out the varieties drainage and various schemes of its device, as well as the purpose. Drainage is simply necessary because this system protects the house and plot from excess moisture. If it’s not installed correctly, then the effect may be reversed. This will lead to flooding and leaching the soil.
Home drainage system For beginning, it is necessary to disassemble its types and find out the features of work everyone.
Surface drainage can be done without the involvement of craftsmen. it relatively simple job.
Depth drainage is best done at the construction stage at home.
The building also needs protection. It often happens that a stream groundwater penetrates into underground spaces. Water may flood cellar, garage, underground parking or relaxation room. It all depends on of what is below the surface of the earth.
Surface drainage is carried out using various storm water inlets and trays. This type of drainage got its name for that the whole system is located on the surface. Trays can successfully cope with rainwater and moisture flows, which is formed as a result of melting snow.
There are two types of surface drainage: point and linear.
- Point. Such a system consists of catchment areas, which, in turn, are connected to the sewage system. Water collection devices are usually installed under the gutters, in lowlands and under cranes.
- Linear. The system resembles a channel that has a slope towards the well. This is where moisture comes from showers.
This is not to say that one type of drainage is better than the other. Often both varieties are used together for greater efficiency. All devices in the system require regular cleaning, otherwise they cease to function properly. Well-organized gutter It serves well and does its job.
In point layout, trays are installed, first of all, under the sewer of the house. Otherwise, the water will be constantly fall on the foundation and on the site.
Incorrect layout will cause moisture to underground premises.
The trays must be installed so that they are underground. From they will have to hold pipes to the sewer. Top tray behind the bars. This is a protective and decorative element. at the same time. To clean the tray, you only need to raise the grate and remove debris from the container.
The linear system has been known for a very long time. It was used in Ancient Egypt and Babylon. Today only used materials, but the principle of operation has remained the same.
Linear drainage For drainage apply plastic or reinforced concrete trays. They are equipped with top a grid that covers the gutter. There are garbage collectors in the system, which facilitate the maintenance of trays.
Installation of such systems is necessary in cases when:
- protection of the foundation from rainwater is necessary;
- there is a risk of soil erosion;
- there is a need to remove moisture from sheds, garages and other structures located in the lowland;
- to protect paths in the garden and cottage areas.
Installation of water flow will not be a difficult procedure even for a beginner. Its device is extremely clear.
Typically, both types of drainage are installed in the areas: and deep and superficial. Such a drainage network will provide absolute protection against moisture.
Before arranging a buried system, it is necessary to determine in which side the water flows during showers. It is this indicator is one of the most important.
If you make a mistake with the level of bias, you can harm yourself with your same work.
You can find out the direction of water flow without exploring the area. To do this, just wait for the first shower and see where flows are directed.
- When the direction of flows is determined, stock up on drainage pipes and geotextiles. Instead of geotextiles, you can take any other material that passes water well.
- Trenches break out on the site. Their pattern resembles a Christmas tree.
- Once again, make sure that the correct one is selected. direction. All possible errors are easily fixed at this stage. works. It is necessary to leave the trenches open until the first rain. If everyone done correctly, then the water will drain in the right direction. If water is in trenches, then you have to redo everything, because it’s indicates insufficient slope of the flow. If water flows on the contrary, it’s an error in determining the side bias.
- If the trenches pass the test, you can continue to deepen drains. Tubes are cut into pieces of the desired length and fastened between themselves.
- Drains are laid in trenches. Before laying the pipe wrap it with geotextile. This will allow the system to easily remove water. and at the same time protect it from clogging. To make simple a drainage system of a buried type, it is necessary to dig a trench depth in half a meter. In this case, it will work effectively in the warm season. In order for the drainage to function in the cold time, and during the thaw period, you need to make trenches with a depth not less than one meter. Also in this case it will be necessary to install special wells. Practice shows that simple construction enough to protect the plot and the house from moisture.
- Laying drainage pipes Trenches filled with gravel and small pebbles. This will allow moisture to easily flow to the pipes.
- Pipes are discharged into the main wells and trenches. Can bring them to other sources of the drainage system.
General drainage scheme: receiver well, drains and collector, which removes excess moisture.
Calculation and design always depend on the characteristics of each specific site. You can’t take and install the same thing on everyone the system. Somewhere extra drainage is required, and somewhere the simplest device will do. In extreme cases, you can turn to cards to determine the nature of your участка.Засыпаем траншею
Even if you have data from cards, do not neglect additional practical verification of bias. In case not it is possible in some places to achieve the desired flow direction, you can try to fix it with embankments. However, such a procedure also not carried out without preliminary calculations. A number of problems can solve using a drain pump. This is a forced system. drainage, which is used in cases where natural cannot be created or additional output device required water
On clay soils
Not all types of soil pass water well. These include clayey. Clay soil is characterized by an excess of moisture. because of this does not get the right amount of oxygen into the roots. how result – plants die. Dense turf also leads to oxygen starvation of plants.
When equipping a small area with a drainage system, the design process does not have to do the calculation. In this case it is necessary to take into account the parameters regarding the drains:
- location according to plan;
- distance between rows;
- the device of the wellhead and manholes.
The natural relief of the plot with a slope is better to use when device drainage system.
Laying in clay soil
It is easier to work with an inclined section than with a flat one. it due to at least a reduction in labor costs. All you need is competently Combine outdoor and indoor drainage.
Clay soil is dense and heavy, therefore, to improve drainage properties of the soil should be thoroughly loosened. In the process gaskets of drains, it is necessary to bypass places intended for the passage of the car.
On peat soils
On peatlands, the level of groundwater is usually high. Because of this, these types of soils are practically not used for growing plants. In peatlands, the root system of plants it simply rots.
Drainage of peat bogs allows lowering the groundwater level to 2–2.5 m. You do not need to do this if your site is already soil was drained. This can be easily determined. Location on drainage was carried out if there are no stagnation of melt water on it, and the groundwater level in the flood does not exceed 1.5 m.
This is found only in lowland peatlands or cultivated someone by the earth. Most often on peat bogs you can observe a picture, when the water is close, and in the spring it is not even absorbed in places in the ground. The only exception is the hot summer when the level water table is greatly reduced, as a result of which peat dries up and needs watering. Perennial roots are very affected during thaws in winter or spring. In such a situation, over time, death plants is inevitable.
Not everything is so regrettable. Peatlands can be drained. What for this can i take If the water is at the level of 0.8–1.2 m, then its excess can be taken away from the site, for example, planting birch trees or viburnum bushes in the northwest side of the site or beyond the limits. The fact is that birch trees actively collect moisture on 30 m away from you. So, you drain the area, while not shading it with these trees.
If the water is closer, then you have to make quality drainage system. To do this, divide the site into sectors. Wherein drainage ditches are placed on the slope of the water collection site. IN Dig a sewage well in the lower corner of the plot or make artificial pond. All excess water with peat plot. If you decide to make a catchment basin in the form well, then the accumulated water in summer drought can be use for watering.
Land around the pond moisture-loving fruit / decorative culture.
Two ditches must pass along the edges of the land, transverse – must be provided for high-quality drainage peat bog. For example, for 6 acres, it is enough to make 1-2 transverse ditches. Moreover, the depth of the ditch should reach about 40-50 cm. Digging a trench, dump the top layer of soil on the edges of the beds, which will be equipped subsequently.
Excess water in the ground
For safety reasons, it is better to make a closed drainage system. The principle of its installation will be described below.
Water cannot accumulate even on a small patch of land – melt or rain. If you find such clusters, then make mounds of soil and sand in such places, as well as fertile soil. Sleeves of the drainage system should converge to well / pond.
On peatlands, plants should be grown on raised beds. If the peat dries in the summer due to the heat, then it will be necessary water regularly and plentifully.
In cases where the groundwater level cannot be reduced to level 2 m, fruit trees on it will need to be planted on artificial hills with a height of 30-50 cm. Moreover, as tree growth, the diameter of the knoll will have to be increased.
For the wetland
The most common mistake when installing a drainage system lies in the fact that it is installed without due designing. When installing drainage pipes and systems, First of all, to understand the situation. It is necessary analyze the site itself and the nature of the groundwater.
For example, water very often affects the foundation. To protect it, design a drainage system during construction at home. In this case, you need to install an additional basement, which will serve as a barrier to groundwater. If the design was not done correctly, then the situation may only get complicated. Groundwater will flow into the basement and affect the foundation. In difficult cases you will have to contact to specialists.
These schemes will help you plan your site drainage accordingly. requirements: