Table of contents:
- 1 What is a geothermal pump
- 2 Pump from the refrigerator
- 3 Types of heat pumps
- 4 Tips
- 5 videos
Heat pumps allow you to collect the dissipated energy from environmental nature: air, water and earth, accumulate and direct it to heating the house. Energy is also used for heating water for washing or air conditioning in rooms. This gives the opportunity to save money by reducing the cost of traditional heat sources: electricity, gas, firewood. In the article we will tell how to make a heat pump with your own hands.
What is a geothermal pump
The principle of thermal the pump
First you need to understand what a geothermal pump is, and by what principle works, because it is he who is the heart of everything the device we are describing.
It’s no secret that in the thickness of the earth is always supported plus temperature. In the same condition is water under ice. In this relatively warm environment, a closed pipeline with liquid.
The operation scheme of heat pumps is quite simple and based on the reverse Carnot principle:
- The coolant, moving along the external circuit, heats up from selected source and enters the evaporator.
- There he exchanges energy with a refrigerant (usually this freon).
- Freon boils, passes into a gaseous state and contracts compressor.
- Hot gas (it heats up between 35–65oC) enters another heat exchanger in which it gives off its heat heating system or hot water supply at home.
- The cooled refrigerant becomes liquid again and returns to new circle.
Heat pump out the refrigerator
The main part of the system is the compressor. Its better to buy ready in the store or use available from the refrigerator or air conditioner. All other components are evaporator, condenser, Pipeline – the power to assemble yourself. The energy of such a device will be consume only for compression and heat transfer, while generating 5 times more.
Using an old compressor, you need to rely on its the service life may be short and the system capacity will decrease. Besides Moreover, the power of a worn compressor may not be enough for full operation of the system.
Some craftsmen went further and made a heat pump from the refrigerator by placing heat-radiators inside it land. The inside is constantly maintained at positive temperature, which makes the refrigerator work constantly, heating radiator located behind it. Using a native radiator, make heat exchanger from it (or make home-made), selected the heat it gives off.
The efficiency of such a heat pump is more suitable for demonstration of the operation of the device, since its efficiency is very low. Besides Moreover, the refrigerator is not designed for this mode of operation and can quickly break down.
Types of Heat Pumps
There are three types of pumps, depending on the source heat:
A soil-water installation uses the heat of the bowels. Temperature land at horizons of more than 20 m always remains unchanged, therefore and the pump can generate the required energy year-round. Of options mounting two:
- vertical shaft;
- horizontal collector.
In the first case, a well is drilled with a depth of about 50–100 m and into it pipes with circulating coolant are placed – special non-freezing fluid.
At a depth of 5 m, collectors are laid along which also coolant moves. For heating a house with an area of 150 m2 requires a plot of at least 250 m2, and it can not be used for agricultural planting. Valid only the device of a decorative lawn and flowerbed.
A water-to-water pump uses the energy of water from lakes, wells, or wells. Some manage to extract heat even from drains. the main thing – so that the filter does not clog and the metal does not collapse.
This type usually shows the highest efficiency, but set it succeeds not in every suburban area, but for operation groundwater need permission. Similar devices more characteristic for industrial production.
Air-to-water design is less efficient than the first two, since winter production is significantly reduced. FROM on the other hand, when installing it, you do not need to drill or dig anything. The installation is simply mounted on the roof of the house.
Independent heat pump installation
As already mentioned, it is preferable to buy a compressor ready. Any model used in air conditioners is suitable.
We collect all other components on our own:
- A stainless tank is taken as the condenser body with a capacity of about 100 liters. It is cut in half and mounted inside a coil from a copper tube with a wall thickness of at least 1 mm. Into the shell threaded connections are soldered to connect to the circuit. After this part of the tank can be welded.
- For the evaporator, a polyethylene bottle of volume is perfect 80 l or pipe length. A coil and inputs and outputs of water are brought. Heat carriers are isolated from external environment foam rubber “fur coat”.
- Now you need to put the whole system, solder the tubes and fill refrigerant. The amount of freon is very important for proper operation. pump, this calculation is best left to the heating engineer. He is will be able to finally connect the installation and configure compressor.
- It remains only to connect the external circuit. Its assembly will be depend on the type of pump.
Vertical installation “soil-water” requires a well, into it geothermal probe descends.
For a horizontal apparatus, a collector is assembled and buried into the earth at a depth excluding freezing.
In the water-water system, the circuit consists of a network of plastic pipes, through which the coolant will flow. Then all this is needed fix in a reservoir at the required depth.
The air-water pump manifold is also mounted on the roof of the house or nearby.
For stable operation and protection against breakage, a machine is desirable add the ability to manually start the compressor in case sudden outage. The cost of such an installation high enough. The factory pump is even more expensive. However practice shows that the acquisition pays off in a few years operation.