Table of contents:
- 1 Foundation under the walls
- 1.1 Planning
- 1.2 Axial marking
- 2 Dimensions of the foundation, its reinforcement and device
- 3 Video: the behavior of the strip foundation in different conditions
- 4 Photos
Building your home is a responsible and important activity. However, all the joy will come to naught if the house shrinks.
Huge foundation can appear due to cracks, burst windows in the windows and even the roof deteriorate, because due to the deformation of the walls, the roof structure is violated, due to why the tile will start falling from it or the sheets with which it covered.
Foundation under the walls
It is worth mentioning two main types of foundations, which used when building a home. It:
- monolithic, a pit is used for its device;
- tape, which breaks out under separate load-bearing walls.
The latter type is made in the form of trenches. Accordingly, on him less effort, resources and time are spent, therefore it is more popular, and it would be right to consider it.
You must have a typical house design. You can order it at any design institute, an architect or do it yourself (when have construction skills). If you don’t have enough strength for such a project – at least you can estimate in your mind what dimensions the building will have, how many floors, and only then on a piece of paper draw a foundation plan with indicating its size and thickness of the trenches.
Layout for the foundation
First you need to note the exact the location of the building, as well as establish lighthouses between which transverse and longitudinal fishing lines (or strong non-expandable kapron threads), denoting the axis of the building.
Such lighthouses are usually made at some distance from the future. foundation using two wooden slats located vertically, across which another board is attached. Her top must match the level mark indicated in the project.
Next, using the laser level, it is noted in which place this rail will intersect with the axis of the building; a screw, a fishing line is attached and we are engaged by analogy with another side. So, by analogy, all axes are made. Their correctness installation is checked by a laser level, and the distance to parallel sides should be equal between the axes.
The dimensions of the foundation, its reinforcement and device
The depth and width of the trenches depends on the thickness of the walls, material, of which they will be, the soil and the number of floors of the future building. Than less soil density, thicker walls, denser material and higher house, the wider and deeper you need to dig trenches. It costs remember that an extra margin of safety does not hurt, but it can hurt hit the pocket and take away time and energy. When the trenches are ready it is necessary to wait a month until the soil is seated.
Inside the trench, a pillow is made under the foundation. If the one to For example, it is 40-50 cm wide, then the pillow will be 20 cm larger on each side, that is, the total width will be 80–90 cm. For this, when the foundation trenches are ready, a shovel cuts off the soil layer at foundations deep into 20 cm and somewhere at the same height. Then there a layer of sand is poured, about 50 mm, which will become waterproofing. Reinforced mesh is placed in the pillow (if necessary you can 2 by linking them together as a frame).
The foundation can be made of different materials:
- foundation blocks;
- concrete mix;
- any durable aggregate mixed with mortar (for small buildings).
Foundation blocks are best used as they are large to size. However, there is one significant drawback – for installation a crane is needed, and its work should be combined with delivery this building material to the plot. If this is not done, the crane will have to be hired twice: for unloading, and then for laying in trench blocks.
Blocks are laid on a layer of cement-sand mortar, thick about a centimeter or more, they also close the seams. Blocks should stack with dressing a row, as when laying walls, otherwise it will not necessary strength is provided. Blocks need to be greased bitumen is most convenient to do while one is laid a series of blocks, not two or three. When the finished foundation design strengthened, you can fill it on the sides with earth, evenly tamping (manually or “paw”).
The foundation must be above ground level so that the horizontal the insulation between it and the wall could hold back moisture (usually it’s several layers of roofing material, and for seismic zones – cement-sand screed 1: 3).
Also, to protect the strip foundation from dampness, blind area, at least 1 meter wide. Preliminary preparing a clay platform 10 cm thick that you need tamp. She should have a slope from the house, which will provide precipitation.
Video: the behavior of the strip foundation in different conditions
After When trenching is completed, construction of the formwork begins
Fixed EPS formwork for strip foundations
Formwork under pile and strip foundation
Preparation for pouring pile-tape foundation
Tape reinforcement foundation
Tape foundation in spacer formwork
Strip foundation under porch
Ready tape foundation